Tagion FAQ

WELCOME TO TAGION FAQ

This is a good place to start if you want to know more about Tagion. Should you by any chance not find an answer to your questions, it might be in the white paper. If not let us know bu posting it on this page. If it is Tagion related we most likely have the answer :wink:

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How can I contribute?

There are many ways to contribute: concept development, software development, documentation, evangelism etc. If you want to contribute, say hello in the intro topic 1 and we’ll go from there.

Who governs Tagion?

The users of the system by a reputational trust score model and Proof of Community model.

More, we are trying to extend the governance model to reward all actors in the model, which could be divided into four main categories:
• Sense-makers: core concept developers
• Value-makers: programmers and nodes
• Relation makers: evangelists and services on top
• Decision-makers: core developers and node operators

What is DART (Distributed Archive of Random Transactions)?

DART (Distributed Archive of Random Transactions) is built to store and keep track of transactions in the Tagion network. The database efficiently handles the removal and addition of transactions in a secure and distributed manner.

Why is DART better than Legacy or other distributed databases?

In comparison to other distributed ledger technologies, DART is optimized for token transfers. It creates cryptographic bills which makes it extremely efficient for searching, reading and storing. It also contains a fingerprint for the state of the database, another feature that is missing in classic distributed hash tables.

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What is HTLC (Hash Time Locked Contract)?

A Hashed Timelock Contract (HTLC) is a type of smart contract used in cryptocurrency channels to eliminate counterparty risk. It enables the implementation of time-bound transactions.

In practical terms, this means that recipients of a transaction have to acknowledge payment by generating cryptographic proof within a certain timeframe. Otherwise, the transaction does not take place.

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What is a DEX?

A DEX is a decentralized exchange that allows people to place orders and trade cryptocurrencies without an intermediary institution managing the ledger or controlling user funds. Close to all DEX however don’t have a pair matching due to the lack of consensus ordering. Also, even though the exchange itself is decentralized the matching is still centralized (may be open-source in some cases though).

Does Tagion have a DEX?

Yes - soon. Pay with anything anywhere. Tagion DEX is an open protocol that enables a trustless exchange of any digital currency that supports HTLC (Hash Time Locked Contract). Thanks to the fair ordering of transactions enabled by Hashgraph, Tagion DEX also provides automatic ‘on-chain’ pair matching.

Once completed, Tagion’s DEX will be able to seamlessly exchange between all common crypto and FIAT currencies (semi-decentralized). Read more in the White Paper.

What is a shard?

A database shard is a horizontal partition of data in a database or search engine. Each individual partition is referred to as a shard or database shard. Each shard is held on a separate file system to spread the load.

Tagion’s database, DART, supports sharding on a single DART where the DART is divided between nodes in the network. This means that only a fraction of the data is stored in a node’s local file system.

One of the examples is having a sub-DART for a video game, so that in-game transactions don’t stall the main network - and ensures the data as it is only the owner of the data that can modify or erase it. This is not the case for a torrent file system.

Some data within a database remains present in all shards, but some appear only in a single shard. Each shard (or server) acts as the single source for this subset of data. A node always has a copy of the data to secure data in case a node is lost. It also improves the load speed because you can load data from several nodes at once. It also reduces distributed denial-of-service (DDoS).

Does sharding work?

Sharding is a method of splitting and storing a single logical dataset in multiple databases. By distributing the data among multiple machines, a cluster of database systems can store larger dataset and handle additional requests. Sharding is necessary if a dataset is too large to be stored in a single database.

In many databases, sharding is a first-class concept, and the database knows how to store and retrieve data within a cluster. Tagion uses sharding to secure data so we can prove that we have the correct data. The optimized performance is a side effect.

What other crypto projects are utilising sharding?

Almost all modern databases including Tagion’s DART are natively sharded. Cassandra, HBase, HDFS, and MongoDB are popular distributed databases. Notable examples of non-sharded modern databases are SQLite, Redis (spec in progress), Memcached, and Zookeeper.

What does DAG stand for?

The Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) DLT is a solution that offers the benefits of blockchain with better performance.

The idea of a Directed Acyclic Graph is by no means a new one. In mathematics, a DAG is a graph that travels in one direction without cycles connecting the other edges. This means that it is impossible to traverse the entire graph starting at one edge. The edges of the directed graph only go one way. The graph is a topological ordering, that keeps each track of each node.

Imagine a collection of individual transactions where each transaction is linked to at least one other transaction in the following way:

Directed
The links point in the same direction with earlier transactions linked to later transactions, and so on.

Acyclic
Loops are not possible. A transaction cannot loop back on itself after linking to another transaction.

Graph
The mesh of connected transactions can be represented as nodes in a graph network, in which nodes are joined to each other by links.

How is a DAG different from other distributed ledger technologies?

Practical differences between a DAG and a DLT typically include greater scalability and lower transaction fees for a DAG. They offer much higher validation speeds. In fact, whereas Bitcoin-style blockchain slows down as traffic increases.

A blockchain is a long list of blocks, so in order to find the last transaction, you need to search backwards through the whole block (this is time-consuming). To minimize this issue, a database searches for the unspent output from bitcoin transactions (UTXO) instead.

There is no mining on DAGs and therefore no need to incentivise miners through mining reward systems and thus, no need to charge users high transaction fees. No mining also means no mining equipment, the sort that you’ve undoubtedly heard uses more energy than entire nations.

With little or no transaction fees, DAGs can be used in situations where blockchain would not be feasible. A prime example is micro or nano-transactions between devices and sensors. DAGs however often contain a fee to reduce the spam and to control the supply of money.

What is elastic money supply and how does it function?

Definition of elastic currency. : a currency that automatically increases and decreases in volume with the demands of the money. Tagion is inspired by the equation of exchange trying to maintain a stable internal price level by regulating the money supply based on the speed of money and adoption of the system. The adoption is an arbitrary measure of the underlying commodities Tagions are used to Trade. Sophisticated algorithm burns and spins of money to secure a stable value of Tagions.

What is a Dapp?

A decentralized application is a computer application that runs on a distributed computing system. DApps have been popularized by distributed ledger technologies such as the Ethereum Blockchain, where DApps are often referred to as smart contracts.

Can I build a Dapp on Tagion?

In the classical sense: no. Tagion is optimized for token transfers and is therefore not equipped with a stateful machine. It is, however, possible to build smart contracts and run the transfer through Tagion.

Thinking out of the box: yes. It is possible to use stateless smart contracts, and they have to be compliant with Tagion. Ethereum supports state full smart contracts which makes it simple to write a smart contract that could be used.

Who is Elinor Ostrom?

Elinor Ostrom was an American political economist whose work was associated with the New Institutional Economics and the resurgence of political economy.

In 2009, she was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for her “analysis of economic governance, especially the commons”, which she shared with Oliver E. Williamson. To date, she remains the first of only two women to win the Nobel Prize in Economics, the other being Esther Duflo.

Tagion has based much of its governing on the principles for a common that Elinor Orstrom developed.

Who is Charles Darwin?

Charles Darwin, in full Charles Robert Darwin, (born February 12, 1809, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England—died April 19, 1882, Downe, Kent), English naturalist whose scientific theory of evolution by natural selection became the foundation of modern evolutionary studies.

Tagion has based some of its governance rules on the principles of natural selection.

Is Hashgraph patented?

No, the Hashgraph mathematical proof itself is not patented, because only inventions can be patented, not the science itself as the mathematical proof. Swirlds own the US Patent_9,646,029_B1 claiming a distributed database system that reaches consensus with a proof of stake model and the Hashgraph algorithm. Swirlds have filed the patent in the US and Australia.

The patent application got refusal in Korea and has chosen not to continue the national phase in Germany (EU).

Tagion used the math behind Hashgraph in a completely different way, in a different context, which is its P2P distributed database technology. Tagion as well filed patents in EU, that are related to the gossip and security mechanisms and the database technology.

What patents does Tagion hold?

Tagions EU patents are led in the name of its founding company I25S ApS. The patents concern 1) a database system and 2) and network gossip protocol.

The database system, which is implemented as the DART in Tagion, is a distributed database system that can efficiently search and store data based on a cryptographic hash enabling the network to execute transactions in parallel enabling performance and scalability.

The gossip protocol is an efficient way to share information among all members
of the network